01-16.70 Experiments proved that fructose caused the development of insulin resistance in humans.

QUOTE (emphasis mine): “At the liver, fructose is rapidly metabolized into glucose, lactose and glycogen. The body handles excess glucose consumption through several well-defined metabolic pathways, such as glycogen storage and de novo lipogenesis (creation of new fat). No such system is present for fructose. The more you eat, the more you metabolize. The bottom line is that excess fructose is changed into fat in the liver. High levels of fructose will cause fatty liver. Fatty liver is absolutely crucial to the development of insulin resistance in the liver. 

That fructose directly causes insulin resistance was discovered long ago. As far back as 1980, experiments proved that fructose (but not glucose) caused the development of insulin resistance in humans.16 Healthy subjects were given an extra 1000 calories per day of either glucose or fructose. The glucose group showed no change in insulin sensitivity. The fructose group, however, showed a 25 percent worsening of their insulin sensitivity—after just seven days!” [1]

NOTE (my commentary)

DISCERNMENT QUESTIONS
What does this quote say?
What does it say that I should obey?
What is the wish? What are the outcomes?
What are the basic steps?
What are the obstacles?
Who needs to hear this?

RESOURCES

SOURCE – Footnotes:
[1]  “The Obesity Code: Unlocking the Secrets of Weight Loss” by Dr. Jason Fung, Timothy Noakes

Please review the page How and Why We Use Quotes.
Key: Fung Origin: Last Revision: 01/09/2020

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01-16.69 Obesity is a hormonal, not a caloric imbalance.

QUOTE (emphasis mine): “The simple truth is that weight loss comes down to understanding the hormonal roots of obesity. Insulin is the main driver. Obesity is a hormonal, not a caloric imbalance. There are not one, but two main considerations for proper food choices: 

What to eat 
When to eat 

In considering the first question, there are some simple guidelines to follow.
Reduce intake of refined grains and sugars,
moderate protein consumption and
increase natural fats.
Maximize protective factors such as fiber and vinegar.
Choose only natural, unprocessed foods. 

In considering the second question, balance insulin-dominant periods with insulin-deficient periods: balance your feeding and fasting.

Eating continuously is a recipe for weight gain. Intermittent fasting is a very effective way to deal with when to eat. 

In the end, the question is this: If you don’t eat, will you lose weight? Yes, of course. So there is no real doubt about its efficacy. It will work.

There are other factors that affect insulin and weight loss such as sleep deprivation and stress (cortisol effect). If these are the major pathways of obesity, they must be directly addressed, not with diet, but with techniques such as proper sleep hygiene, meditation, prayer or massage therapy.” [1]

NOTE (my commentary)

DISCERNMENT QUESTIONS
What does this quote say?
What does it say that I should obey?
What is the wish? What are the outcomes?
What are the basic steps?
What are the obstacles?
Who needs to hear this?

RESOURCES

SOURCE – Footnotes:
[1]  “The Obesity Code: Unlocking the Secrets of Weight Loss” by Dr. Jason Fung, Timothy Noakes

Please review the page How and Why We Use Quotes.
Key: Fung Origin: Last Revision: 01/09/2020

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01-16.68 Instead of skipping a meal, we concoct all sorts of intricate rules:

QUOTE (emphasis mine): “SKIP A FEW MEALS”

ASK A CHILD how to lose weight, and there’s a good chance he or she will answer, “Skip a few meals.” This suggestion is probably the simplest and most correct answer. 

Instead, we concoct all sorts of intricate rules: 
Eat six times a day. 
Eat a big breakfast. 
Eat low fat. 
Keep a food diary. 
Count your calories. 
Read food labels. 
Avoid all processed foods. 
Avoid white foods—white sugar, white flour, white rice. 
Eat more fiber. 
Eat more fruits and vegetables. 
Mind your microbiome. 
Eat simple foods. 
Eat protein with every meal. 
Eat raw food. 
Eat organic food. 
Count your Weight Watcher points. 
Count your carbs. 
Increase exercise. 
Do resistance and cardio. 
Measure your metabolism and eat less than that. 

The list of intricate rules is virtually endless, with more coming every day. It is mildly ironic that even while following this endless list, we’re getting fatter than ever.” [1]

NOTE (my commentary)

The rules are great rules for eating. But what is needed are periods of not eating – eating NOTHING – alternating with periods of wise eating. What makes the difference is the not eating, not how we eat when we are eating.

Just turn the eating now switch to OFF.

DISCERNMENT QUESTIONS
What does this quote say?
What does it say that I should obey?
What is the wish? What are the outcomes?
What are the basic steps?
What are the obstacles?
Who needs to hear this?

RESOURCES

SOURCE – Footnotes:
[1]  “The Obesity Code: Unlocking the Secrets of Weight Loss” by Dr. Jason Fung, Timothy Noakes

Photo credit: Wikimedia Commons.

Please review the page How and Why We Use Quotes.
Key: Fung Origin: Last Revision: 01/09/2020

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01-16.67 Increasing the timing of meals has a far more detrimental long-term effect on weight gain.

QUOTE (emphasis mine): “The reverse is also true. Does increasing meal size or frequency contribute to obesity? A recent randomized controlled trial comparing the two demonstrated that only the group with increased eating frequency significantly increased intrahepatic fat.36 Fatty liver is instrumental in the development of insulin resistance. Increasing the timing of meals has a far more detrimental long-term effect on weight gain. Yet, while we obsess over the question of what to eat, we virtually ignore the crucial aspect of meal timing.” [1]

In other words, feasting must be followed by fasting. When we remove the fasting and keep all the feasting, we get weight gain. This is the ancient secret. This is the cycle of life. Fasting follows feasting. Feasting follows fasting. Diets must be intermittent, not steady. Food is a celebration of life. Every single culture in the world celebrates with large feasts. That’s normal, and it’s good. However, religion has always reminded us that we must balance our feasting with periods of fasting—“atonement,” “repentance” or “cleansing.” These ideas are ancient and time-tested. Should you eat lots of food on your birthday? Absolutely. Should you eat lots of food at a wedding? Absolutely. These are times to celebrate and indulge. But there is also a time to fast. We cannot change this cycle of life. We cannot feast all the time. We cannot fast all the time. It won’t work. It doesn’t work. [2]

NOTE (my commentary)

DISCERNMENT QUESTIONS
What does this quote say?
What does it say that I should obey?
What is the wish? What are the outcomes?
What are the basic steps?
What are the obstacles?
Who needs to hear this?

RESOURCES

SOURCE – Footnotes:
[1]  “The Obesity Code: Unlocking the Secrets of Weight Loss” by Dr. Jason Fung, Timothy Noakes

Please review the page How and Why We Use Quotes.
Key: Fung Origin: Last Revision: 01/09/2020

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01-16.66 INTERMITTENT FASTING AND CALORIC REDUCTION

QUOTE (emphasis mine): “INTERMITTENT FASTING AND CALORIC REDUCTION

THE ONE CRUCIAL aspect that differentiates fasting from other diets is its intermittent nature. Diets fail because of their constancy. The defining characteristic of life on Earth is homeostasis. Any constant stimulus will eventually be met with an adaptation that resists the change. Persistent exposure to decreased calories results in adaptation (resistance); the body eventually responds by reducing total energy expenditure, leading to the dreaded plateau in weight loss and eventually to weight regain. A 2011 study compared a portion-control strategy to an intermittent-fasting strategy.33 The portion-control group reduced daily calories by 25 percent. For example, if a person normally ate 2000 calories per day, he or she would reduce intake to 1500 calories per day. Over a week, he or she would receive a total of 10,500 calories of a Mediterranean-style diet, which is generally acknowledged to be healthy. The intermittent-fasting group got 100 percent of their calories for five days of the week, but on the other two days, got only 25 percent. For example, they received 2000 calories for five days of the week, but on the other two days they would receive only 500—a structure very similar to the 5:2 diet championed by Dr. Michael Mosley. Over a week, they would receive 11,000 calories, slightly more than the portion control group. At six months, weight loss was similar between the groups (14.3 pounds, or 6.5 kilograms)—but as we know, in the short term, all diets work. However, the intermittent fasting group showed significantly lower insulin levels and insulin resistance. Intermittent diets produced far greater benefits by introducing periods of very low insulin levels that help break the resistance. Further studies34, 35 confirm that the combination of intermittent fasting with caloric restriction is effective for weight loss. The more dangerous visceral fat seems to be preferentially removed. Important risk factors, including LDL cholesterol (low-density lipoproteins), size of low-density lipoproteins and triglycerides, were also improved.” [1]

NOTE (my commentary)

DISCERNMENT QUESTIONS
What does this quote say?
What does it say that I should obey?
What is the wish? What are the outcomes?
What are the basic steps?
What are the obstacles?
Who needs to hear this?

RESOURCES

SOURCE – Footnotes:
[1]  “The Obesity Code: Unlocking the Secrets of Weight Loss” by Dr. Jason Fung, Timothy Noakes

Please review the page How and Why We Use Quotes.
Key: Fung Origin: Last Revision: 01/09/2020

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01-16.65 Decreasing food intake is matched by decreased energy expenditure.

QUOTE (emphasis mine): “There are, in fact, no species of animal, humans included, that have evolved to require three meals a day, everyday. It’s unclear to me where this myth originated. Daily caloric restriction does, in fact, lead to decreased metabolism, so people have assumed that this effect would be magnified as food intake dropped to zero. It won’t. Decreasing food intake is matched by decreased energy expenditure. However, as food intake goes to zero, the body switches energy inputs from food to stored food (fat). This strategy significantly increases the availability of “food,” which is matched by an increase in energy expenditure. 

So what happened in the Minnesota Starvation Experiment (see chapter 3)? These participants were not fasting, but instead eating a reduced-calorie diet. The hormonal adaptations to fasting were not allowed to happen. Adrenalin was not increased to maintain total energy expenditure. Growth hormone was not increased to maintain lean muscle mass. Ketones were not produced to feed the brain. Detailed physiologic measurements show that total energy expenditure is increased over the duration of a fast.19

Twenty-two days of alternate daily fasting created no measurable decrease in total energy expenditure. There was no starvation mode. There was no decreased metabolism. Fat oxidation increased 58 percent, while carbohydrate oxidation decreased from 53 percent. The body had started to switch over from burning sugar to burning fat, with no overall drop in energy. Four days of continuous fasting actually increased total energy expenditure by 12 percent.20 Norepinephrine (adrenalin) levels skyrocketed 117 percent to maintain energy. Fatty acids increased over 370 percent as the body switched to burning fat. Insulin decreased 17 percent. Blood glucose levels dropped slightly, but remained in the normal range.”

[1]

NOTE (my commentary)

DISCERNMENT QUESTIONS
What does this quote say?
What does it say that I should obey?
What is the wish? What are the outcomes?
What are the basic steps?
What are the obstacles?
Who needs to hear this?

RESOURCES

SOURCE – Footnotes:
[1]  “The Obesity Code: Unlocking the Secrets of Weight Loss” by Dr. Jason Fung, Timothy Noakes

Please review the page How and Why We Use Quotes.
Key: Fung Origin: Last Revision: 01/09/2020

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01-16.64 Blood glucose levels remain normal as the body switches over to burning fat for energy.

QUOTE (emphasis mine): “Blood glucose levels remain normal as the body switches over to burning fat for energy. This effect occurs with fasting periods as short as twenty-four to thirty-six hours. Longer fasts reduce insulin even more dramatically. More recently, alternate daily fasting has been studied as an acceptable technique for reducing insulin levels.7

Regular fasting, by routinely lowering insulin levels, has been shown to significantly improve insulin sensitivity.8 This finding is the missing piece in the weight-loss puzzle. Most diets restrict the intake of foods that cause increased insulin secretion, but don’t address insulin resistance. You lose weight initially, but insulin resistance keeps your insulin levels and body set weight high. By fasting, you can efficiently reduce your body’s insulin resistance, since it requires both persistent and high levels. 

Insulin causes salt and water retention in the kidney, so lowering insulin levels rids the body of excess salt and water. Fasting is often accompanied by an early, rapid weight loss. For the first five days, weight loss averages 1.9 pounds (0.9 kilograms) per day, far exceeding the loss that could be expected from the caloric restriction, and is probably due to diuresis. Diuresis reduces bloating and may also lower blood pressure slightly.” [1]

NOTE (my commentary)

DISCERNMENT QUESTIONS
What does this quote say?
What does it say that I should obey?
What is the wish? What are the outcomes?
What are the basic steps?
What are the obstacles?
Who needs to hear this?

RESOURCES

SOURCE – Footnotes:
[1]  “The Obesity Code: Unlocking the Secrets of Weight Loss” by Dr. Jason Fung, Timothy Noakes

Please review the page How and Why We Use Quotes.
Key: Fung Origin: Last Revision: 01/09/2020

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01-16.63 FASTING IS THE most efficient and consistent strategy to decrease insulin levels

QUOTE (emphasis mine): “The human body is well adapted for dealing with the absence of food. What we’re describing here is the process the body undergoes to switch from burning glucose (short term) to burning fat (long term). Fat is simply the body’s stored food energy. In times of food scarcity, stored food (fat) is naturally released to fill the void. The body does not “burn muscle” in an effort to feed itself until all the fat stores are used. It’s crucial to note that all these beneficial adaptive changes do not occur in the caloric-reduction diet strategy. 

HOW YOUR HORMONES ADAPT TO FASTING Insulin 

FASTING IS THE most efficient and consistent strategy to decrease insulin levels, a fact first noted decades ago6 and widely accepted as true. All foods raise insulin; therefore, the most effective method of reducing insulin is to avoid all foods.” [1]

NOTE (my commentary)

DISCERNMENT QUESTIONS
What does this quote say?
What does it say that I should obey?
What is the wish? What are the outcomes?
What are the basic steps?
What are the obstacles?
Who needs to hear this?

RESOURCES

SOURCE – Footnotes:
[1]  “The Obesity Code: Unlocking the Secrets of Weight Loss” by Dr. Jason Fung, Timothy Noakes

Please review the page How and Why We Use Quotes.
Key: Fung Origin: Last Revision: 01/09/2020

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01-16.62 Physiological Response To Fasting: A Timetable

QUOTE (emphasis mine): “THE BODY’S RESPONSE TO FASTING:

GLUCOSE AND FAT are the body’s main sources of energy. When glucose is not available, then the body adjusts by using fat, without any health detriment. This compensation is a natural part of life. Periodic food scarcity has always been part of human history, and our bodies have evolved processes to deal with this fact of Paleolithic life. The transition from the fed state to the fasted state occurs in several stages:

Feeding: During meals, insulin levels are raised. This allows glucose uptake by tissues such as the muscle or brain for direct use as energy. Excess glucose is stored as glycogen in the liver. 

The post-absorptive phase (six to twenty-four hours after fasting starts): Insulin levels begin to fall. The breakdown of glycogen releases glucose for energy. Glycogen stores last for roughly twenty-four hours. 

Gluconeogenesis (twenty-four hours to two days): The liver manufactures new glucose from amino acids and glycerol. In non-diabetic persons, glucose levels fall but stay within the normal range. 

Ketosis (one to three days after fasting starts): The storage form of fat, triglycerides, is broken into the glycerol backbone and three fatty acid chains. Glycerol is used for gluconeogenesis. Fatty acids may be used directly for energy by many tissues in the body, but not the brain. Ketone bodies, capable of crossing the blood-brain barrier, are produced from fatty acids for use by the brain. Ketones can supply up to 75 percent of the energy used by the brain.4 The two major types of ketones produced are beta hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate, which can increase more than seventy-fold during fasting.5 

Protein conservation phase (after five days): High levels of growth hormone maintain muscle mass and lean tissues. The energy for maintenance of basal metabolism is almost entirely met by the use of free fatty acids and ketones. Increased norepinephrine (adrenalin) levels prevent the decrease in metabolic rate.” [1]

NOTE (my commentary): If fasting happens, and no sugar, carbs or protein flood in to increase insulin, how long does it take for the body to convert from burning carbohydrates to burning body fat for fuel?

How long does it take for the carbohydrates and glucose yielding foods to be used up so that insulin in the body decreases?

My takeaway: what is the best blend of alternating eating and fasting so as to permanently lose weight?

DISCERNMENT QUESTIONS
What does this quote say?
What does it say that I should obey?
What is the wish? What are the outcomes?
What are the basic steps?
What are the obstacles?
Who needs to hear this?

SOURCE – Footnotes:
[1]  “The Obesity Code: Unlocking the Secrets of Weight Loss” by Dr. Jason Fung, Timothy Noakes, p. 238-239.

Image by U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Nashville District Cumberland River Flood 1937 – Eddyville, Kentucky, via Flickr.

Please review the page How and Why We Use Quotes.
Key: Fung01-16.18 Origin: Last Revision: 02/24/2020

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01-16.61 Instead, focus on a tried-and-true ancient healing tradition.

QUOTE (emphasis mine): “FASTING: AN ANCIENT REMEDY

INSTEAD OF SEARCHING for some exotic, never-seen-before diet miracle to help us break insulin resistance, let’s instead focus on a tried-and-true ancient healing tradition. Fasting is one of the oldest remedies in human history and has been part of the practice of virtually every culture and religion on earth.” [1]

NOTE (my commentary): A new fad diet rises up, one after another, trying to jiggle the ingredients of what a dieter can eat or not eat. They all work in the short run, but the pounds inevitably return.

Examples: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fad_diet

“Fen-Fen” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fenfluramine/phentermine

But fasting is the most widespread way to lower calorie intake throughout all the world’s cultures and religions, and throughout human history.

My takeaway: fasting is so common as to be entirely normal.

DISCERNMENT QUESTIONS
What does this quote say?
What does it say that I should obey?
What is the wish? What are the outcomes?
What are the basic steps?
What are the obstacles?
Who needs to hear this?

SOURCE – Footnotes:
[1]  “The Obesity Code: Unlocking the Secrets of Weight Loss” by Dr. Jason Fung, Timothy Noakes

Photo: Fasting-a-glass-of-water-on-an-empty-plate, via Wikimedia Commons.

Please review the page How and Why We Use Quotes.
Key: Fung01-16.17 Origin: Last Revision: 02/24/2020

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